Below is a complete list of titles from a search of the medical literature for studies looking at the ability of cannabidiol (CBD) to reduce biomarkers of inflammation in humans. CBD has a reputation for being the more important anti-inflammatory cannabinoid. And it is being recommended by many for the treatment of inflammatory illness. 

The search strategy in PubMed was as follows: ((((((il-1) OR il-6) OR tnf) OR c-reactive protein) OR erythrocyte sedimentation rate)) AND cannabidiol, with results limited to humans.

Despite what many believe about CBD, its ability to reduce the biochemical mediators of inflammation in man is poorly documented in the world’s medical literature. 

Here is the complete listing of papers meeting search criteria:

1: Couch DG, Tasker C, Theophilidou E, Lund JN, O’Sullivan SE. Cannabidiol and palmitoylethanolamide are anti-inflammatory in the acutely inflamed human colon. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017 Oct 25;131(21):2611-2626. doi: 10.1042/CS20171288. Print 2017 Nov 1. PubMed PMID: 28954820.

2: Naftali T, Mechulam R, Marii A, Gabay G, Stein A, Bronshtain M, Laish I, Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM. Low-Dose Cannabidiol Is Safe but Not Effective in the Treatment for Crohn’s Disease, a Randomized Controlled Trial. Dig Dis Sci. 2017 Jun;62(6):1615-1620. doi: 10.1007/s10620-017-4540-z. Epub 2017 Mar 27. PubMed PMID: 28349233.

3: Harvey BS, Sia TC, Wattchow DA, Smid SD. Interleukin 17A evoked mucosal damage is attenuated by cannabidiol and anandamide in a human colonic explant model. Cytokine. 2014 Feb;65(2):236-44. doi: 10.1016/j.cyto.2013.10.006. Epub 2013 Nov 13. PubMed PMID: 24238999.

4: Nijs J, Loggia ML, Polli A, Moens M, Huysmans E, Goudman L, Meeus M, Vanderweeën L, Ickmans K, Clauw D. Sleep disturbances and severe stress as glial activators: key targets for treating central sensitization in chronic pain patients? Expert Opin Ther Targets. 2017 Aug;21(8):817-826. doi: 10.1080/14728222.2017.1353603. Epub 2017 Jul 12. Review. PubMed PMID: 28685641.

5: De Filippis D, Esposito G, Cirillo C, Cipriano M, De Winter BY, Scuderi C, Sarnelli G, Cuomo R, Steardo L, De Man JG, Iuvone T. Cannabidiol reduces intestinal inflammation through the control of neuroimmune axis. PLoS One. 2011;6(12):e28159. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0028159. Epub 2011 Dec 6. PubMed PMID: 22163000; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3232190.

6: Naftali T, Bar-Lev Schleider L, Dotan I, Lansky EP, Sklerovsky Benjaminov F, Konikoff FM. Cannabis induces a clinical response in patients with Crohn’s disease: a prospective placebo-controlled study. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Oct;11(10):1276-1280.e1. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.04.034. Epub 2013 May 4. PubMed PMID: 23648372.

7: Kozela E, Juknat A, Kaushansky N, Rimmerman N, Ben-Nun A, Vogel Z. Cannabinoids decrease the th17 inflammatory autoimmune phenotype. J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2013 Dec;8(5):1265-76. doi: 10.1007/s11481-013-9493-1. Epub 2013 Jul 28. PubMed PMID: 23892791.

8: Watzl B, Scuderi P, Watson RR. Marijuana components stimulate human peripheral blood mononuclear cell secretion of interferon-gamma and suppress interleukin-1 alpha in vitro. Int J Immunopharmacol. 1991;13(8):1091-7. PubMed PMID: 1667651.

9: Centonze D. Advances in the management of multiple sclerosis spasticity: multiple sclerosis spasticity nervous pathways. Eur Neurol. 2014;72 Suppl 1:6-8. doi: 10.1159/000367615. Epub 2014 Sep 26. PubMed PMID: 25278116.

10: Lafuente H, Alvarez FJ, Pazos MR, Alvarez A, Rey-Santano MC, Mielgo V, Murgia-Esteve X, Hilario E, Martinez-Orgado J. Cannabidiol reduces brain damage and improves functional recovery after acute hypoxia-ischemia in newborn pigs. Pediatr Res. 2011 Sep;70(3):272-7. doi: 10.1203/PDR.0b013e3182276b11. PubMed PMID: 21654550.

11: Kafil TS, Nguyen TM, MacDonald JK, Chande N. Cannabis for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 8;11:CD012954. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012954.pub2. PubMed PMID: 30406638.

12: Srivastava MD, Srivastava BI, Brouhard B. Delta9 tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alter cytokine production by human immune cells. Immunopharmacology. 1998 Nov;40(3):179-85. PubMed PMID: 9858061.

13: Chiurchiù V, Lanuti M, De Bardi M, Battistini L, Maccarrone M. The differential characterization of GPR55 receptor in human peripheral blood reveals a distinctive expression in monocytes and NK cells and a proinflammatory role in these innate cells. Int Immunol. 2015 Mar;27(3):153-60. doi:10.1093/intimm/dxu097. Epub 2014 Oct 25. PubMed PMID: 25344934.

14: Sumariwalla PF, Gallily R, Tchilibon S, Fride E, Mechoulam R, Feldmann M. A novel synthetic, nonpsychoactive cannabinoid acid (HU-320) with antiinflammatory properties in murine collagen-induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2004 Mar;50(3):985-98. PubMed PMID: 15022343.

15: Janefjord E, Mååg JL, Harvey BS, Smid SD. Cannabinoid effects on β amyloid fibril and aggregate formation, neuronal and microglial-activated neurotoxicity in vitro. Cell Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Jan;34(1):31-42. doi:10.1007/s10571-013-9984-x. Epub 2013 Sep 13. PubMed PMID: 24030360.

16: Kafil TS, Nguyen TM, MacDonald JK, Chande N. Cannabis for the treatment of Crohn’s disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Nov 8;11:CD012853. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012853.pub2. PubMed PMID: 30407616.

17: Alhamoruni A, Wright KL, Larvin M, O’Sullivan SE. Cannabinoids mediate opposing effects on inflammation-induced intestinal permeability. Br J Pharmacol. 2012 Apr;165(8):2598-610. doi: 10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01589.x. PubMed PMID:21745190; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3423254.


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